Battery basic principles and basic terms

1. What is a battery?

Battery is a device for energy conversion and storage. It translates chemical or physical energy into electrical energy by responding. Depending on the battery conversion energy, the battery can be divided into chemical batteries and physical batteries.

Chemical battery or chemical power supply is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. It consists of two different components of electrochemical active electrodes of different ingredients, respectively, and a chemical substance that can provide media transmission as an electrolyte. When connected to a certain external carrier, it can provide electrical energy by converting chemical energy inside it to provide electrical energy energy energy energy energy energy energy energy energy energy energy energy energy energy energy energy energy. Essence

Physical battery is a device that converts physical energy into electrical energy.

2. What are the differences between the battery and the secondary battery?

The main difference is that the active substances are different, the active substances of the secondary battery are reversed, and the active substance of the first battery is irreversible. The self -discharge of the battery is far less than the secondary battery, but the internal resistance is far greater than that of the secondary battery. Therefore, the load capacity is lower. In addition, the mass ratio of the battery ratio is greater than the general rechargeable battery.

3. What is the electrochemical principle of nickel -metal hydride battery?

Nickel -hydride batteries use NI oxides as a positive electrode, hydrogen storage metal as the negative electrode, and alkaline solution (mainly KOH) as an electrolyte. When charging nickel -hydride batteries:

Positive reaction: Ni (OH) 2 + OH- → NIOOH + H2O – E-

Negative reaction: M+H2O+E- → MH+OH-

When discharge nickel -hydride battery:

Positive reaction: NIOOH + H2O + E- → Ni (OH) 2 + OH-

Negative reaction: MH+OH- → M+H2O+E-

4. What is the electrochemical principle of lithium ion battery?

The main component of the positive electrode of the lithium -ion battery is LIOO2. The negative electrode is mainly C. When charging,

Positive reaction: LICOO2 → Li1-XCoo2 + XLI + + XE-

Negative reaction: C + XLI + + XE- → CLIX

Total reaction of battery: LICOO2 + C → Li1-XCOO2 + CLIX

The reverse reaction of the above reaction occurs during discharge.

5. What are the standards commonly used in batteries?

The common IEC standard for batteries: The standard for nickel-metal hydride batteries is IEC61951-2: 2003; the lithium-ion battery industry generally based on UL or national standards.

Standards for commonly used batteries: The standard for nickel -metal hydride batteries is GB/T15100_1994, GB/T18288_2000;

The standard for lithium batteries is GB/T10077_1998, YD/T998_1999, GB/T18287_2000.

In addition, the common standards of batteries also have Japanese industrial standards JIS C about battery standards.

IEC is the International Electrical Commission. It is a global standardized organization composed of electrical engineering committees of various countries. Its purpose is to promote the standardization of the world's electrical electronics field. IEC standard is a standard formulated by the International Electricity Commission.

6. What is the main structure of the nickel -metalized battery?

The main composition of nickel -metal hydride batteries is: positive chips (nickel oxides), negative chips (hydrogen storage alloys), electrolyte (mainly KOH), membrane paper, sealing ring, positive hat, battery shell, etc.

7. What is the main structure of lithium ion battery?

The main composition of lithium -ion batteries is: upper and lower cover, positive chip (active substances are lithium oxide cobalt), diaphragm (a special composite film), negative electrode (active substances are carbon), organic electrolyte, battery case (divided into divided into divided Two types of steel shells and aluminum shells).

8. What is battery internal resistance?

It refers to the resistance that the battery flows through the battery during the work. It consists of two parts: Om internal resistance and polarization internal resistance. The large internal resistance of the battery will cause the battery discharge work voltage to decrease and the discharge time will be shortened. The internal resistance size is mainly affected by factors such as the material, manufacturing process, and battery structure of the battery. It is an important parameter to measure battery performance. Note: Generally, the internal resistance of charging state is standard. The internal resistance of the measurement of the battery needs to be measured with a dedicated internal resistance instrument, instead of using a multimeter Ohm file.

9. What is a nominal voltage?

The nominal voltage of the battery refers to the voltage shown in the normal working process. The nominal voltage of the secondary nickel -cadmium nickel -metalized battery is 1.2V; the nominal voltage of the secondary lithium battery is 3.6V/3.7V/3.8V.

10. What is the opening voltage?

The opening voltage refers to the difference between the battery without current flow when the circuit is not currently flowing under non -working conditions. The working voltage is also known as the end voltage, which means that the battery has a poor potential between the upset and negative electrode of the battery in the circuit in the working state, that is, in the working state.

11. What is the capacity of the battery?

The battery capacity is divided into a rated capacity and actual capacity. The rated capacity of the battery refers to the minimum power that stipulates or ensure that the battery should be released under certain discharge conditions when designing and manufacturing batteries. The IEC standard stipulates that the nickel -cadmium and nickel -metal hydride batteries are expressed as the rated capacity of the battery at the environment of 0.1C for 16 hours after charging 0.2C to 1.0V at a power of 0.1C for 16 hours. For lithium -ion batteries, it is stipulated that it can be charged 3 h under the charging conditions controlled by the normal temperature, constant current (1C) -Shanglin (4.2V) control, and then the electricity capacity released when it is 0.2C to 2.75V. The actual capacity of the battery refers to the actual power released by the battery under a certain discharge conditions, which is mainly affected by the discharge multiplier and temperature (therefore, strictly speaking, the battery capacity should refer to the charging and discharge conditions). The unit of battery capacity is AH, MAH (1AH = 1000mAh).

12. What is the residual capacity of the battery?

When a large current (such as 1C or more) is used for rechargeable batteries, due to the "bottleneck effect" of the internal diffusion rate of the ambassador, the battery has reached the end voltage when the capacity fails to completely release it, and then use a small current as such as small currents such as 0.2C can also continue to discharge until 1.0V/branch (nickel -cadmium and nickel -metal hydride battery) and 2.75V/troll (lithium battery) are called residual capacity.

13. What is a discharge platform?

The discharge platform for nickel -metal hydride rechargeable batteries usually refers to the voltage range of a relatively stable working voltage of the battery when the battery is discharged under a certain discharge system. The value is related to the discharge current. The larger the current, the lower its value. The discharge platform of the lithium -ion battery is generally a constant voltage charging to 4.2V and the current is less than 0.01C. The discharge time is put on hold for 10 minutes. It is an important criterion for measuring the quality of the battery.


14. What is the method of identifying the rechargeable battery specified by the EIEC?

According to the IEC standard, the identification of the nickel -hydride battery consists of 5 parts.

01) Battery types: HF, HR represents nickel -metal hydride batteries

02) Battery size information: Including the diameter, height, height, width, thickness, and values of circular batteries, separate bars between the unit: mm: mm: mm: MM

03) Discharge Features Symbol: L represents the proper discharge current multiplier rate within 0.5C

M means that the suitable discharge current multiplier rate is within 0.5-3.5c

H means that the suitable discharge current multiplier rate is within 3.5-7.0C

X means that the battery can work at a 7C-15C high-power discharge current

04) High -temperature battery symbol: use T to represent

05) The battery connection film indicates: CF represents no connecting films, HH represents a connecting piece for the battery pull -shaped series connecting chip, and HB represents the connecting connection of the battery band side by side.

For example: HF18/07/49 indicates a square nickel -metalized battery, with 18mm wide, 7mm thick, and 49mm in height.

KRMT33/62HH represents nickel-cadmium batteries with a discharge multiplied rate between 0.5C-3.5. The high-temperature series monomer battery (no connection tablets), 33mm in diameter, and a height of 62mm.

According to the IEC61960 standard, the logo of the second lithium battery is as follows:

01) Battery identification: 3 letters, followed by 5 numbers (cylindrical) or 6 (square) numbers.

02) The first letter: indicates the negative material of the battery. I -indicates lithium ion with built -in batteries; L -indicates lithium metal electrodes or lithium alloy electrodes.

03) The second letter: indicates the positive electrode material of the battery. C -cobalt -based electrode; n -nickel -based electrode; M -manganese -based electrode; V — 钒 -based electrode.

04) The third letter: indicates the shape of the battery. R -indicates cylindrical batteries; L — means square batteries.

05) Numbers: Cylinder battery: 5 numbers represent the diameter and height of the battery. The unit with a diameter is millimeter, and the height unit is one tenth of millimeters. When a diameter or height is greater than or equal to 100mm, a slope should be added between the two sizes.

Square battery: 6 numbers represent the thickness, width and height of the battery, and the unit millimeter. When three sizes are more than one or equal to 100mm, the dimension should be added between the size; if any of the three size is less than 1mm, the letter "T" is added before this size. Essence

For example: ICR18650 indicates a cylindrical secondary lithium -ion battery with cobalt material, which is about 18mm in diameter and about 65mm in height.


ICP083448 indicates a square two -time lithium ion battery with cobalt material, which is about 8mm thick, about 34mm in width, and about 48mm in height.

ICP08/34/150 indicates a square two -time lithium ion battery with cobalt material, which is about 8mm, the width is about 34mm, and about 150mm height.

ICPT73448 indicates a square two -time lithium ion battery with a cobalt material with a thickness of about 0.7mm, a width of about 34mm, and about 48mm in height.

15. What are the packaging materials of the battery?

01) Do not dry mesh (paper) such as fiber paper and double -sided glue

02) PVC film, trademark pipe

03) Connect: stainless steel sheet, pure nickel sheet, nickel -plated steel sheet

04) Calling slices: stainless steel sheet (easy to weld), pure nickel tablets (point welding)

05) Plug

06) Protective components such as temperature control switches, overcurrent protectors, and current -limiting resistors

07) Carton, carton

08) Plastic shell

16. What is the purpose of battery packaging, combination and design?

01) Beautiful, brand

02) Limitation of battery voltage, you need to connect more batteries in series to obtain higher voltage

03) Protect the battery and prevent short -circuit extended battery life

04) Size restrictions

05) Easy to transport

06) Design of special functions, such as waterproof, special appearance design, etc.

Battery performance and test

17. What are the performances of the secondary battery that usually include?

It mainly includes voltage, internal resistance, capacity, energy density, internal voltage, self -discharge rate, cycle life, sealing performance, safety performance, storage performance, appearance, etc., and other are over -charging, overlap, corrosion resistance, etc.

18. What are the reliability testing items of the battery?

01) Circular life

02) Different rate discharge characteristics

03) Different temperature discharge characteristics

04) Charging characteristics

05) Self -discharge characteristics

06) Storage characteristics

07) Excessive discharge characteristics

08) Different temperature internal resistance

09) Temperature cycle test

10) Falling test

11) Vibration test

12) Capacity test

13) Internal resistance test

14) GMS test

15) High and low temperature impact test

16) Mechanical impact test

17) High temperature and high humidity test

19. What are the safety test items of the battery?

01) Short -circuit test

02) Over charging, overplay testing

03) resistance testing

04) impact test

05) Vibration test

06) Heating test

07) Fire Burning Test

09) Warm change test

10) Loking charging test

11) Free fall test

12) Low pressure test

13) Forced discharge testing

15) Electric heating board test

17) Hot impact test

19) Acupuncture test

20) Squeeze test

21) Heavy object impact test

20. What are the common charging methods?

Charging method of nickel -hydride battery:

01) Hengli charging: The charging current in the entire charging process is a certain value, the most common method;

02) Constant voltage charging: Maintain a constant value at both ends of the charging power supply during the charging process, and the current in the circuit gradually decreases as the battery voltage increases;

03) Constant Flurry Furniture: The battery is first charged (CC) at Hengli. When the battery voltage rises to a certain value, the voltage remains unchanged (CV), and the current in the circuit is reduced to a small, and eventually 0.

The charging method of lithium battery:

Hengli constant voltage charging: The battery is first charged (CC) at the constant current. When the battery voltage rises to a certain value, the voltage remains unchanged (CV), and the current in the circuit is reduced to small, and eventually 0.

21. What is the standard charging and discharge of nickel -metalized batteries?

The IEC international standard stipulates that the standard of the nickel -hydride battery is charged and discharged: first discharge the battery to 1.0V/branch at 0.2C, then charging 0.1C for 16 hours, and put it for 1 hour. Charge the battery standard.

22. What is pulse charging? What does it affect battery performance?

The pulse charging is generally used to fill and put it, that is, it is for 5 seconds to put it for 1 second. In this way, the oxygen generated by the charging process will be restored to electrolyte under the vein. Not only limits the gasification of internal electrolytes, but for those old batteries that are already severely polarized, they will gradually recover or approach the original capacity after using this charging method for 5-10 times.

23. What is a trickle charging?

The trickle charging is a capacity loss caused by the battery due to self -discharge. Pulse current charging is generally used to achieve the above goals.

24. What is charging efficiency?

The charging efficiency refers to the degree of chemical energy that the battery consumes into the chemical energy of the battery into the battery. It is mainly affected by the working environment temperature of the battery process and battery. The higher the general environmental temperature, the lower the charging efficiency.

25. What is discharge efficiency?

The discharge efficiency refers to the ratio of the actual power to the end voltage at a certain discharge conditions to the end of the voltage and the rated capacity. It is mainly affected by the discharge multiplier, ambient temperature, internal resistance, etc. In general, the higher the discharge multiplier rate, the more the discharge rate, the more the discharge rate, the more the discharge rate, the more the discharge rate, the more the discharge rate, the more the discharge rate, the more, the more the discharge rate, the more the discharge rate, the more the discharge rate, the more the discharge rate, the more the discharge rate, the more the discharge rate, the more the discharge rate, the more the discharge rate, the more the discharge rate, the more, the more the discharge rate, the more, the more the discharge rate, and the higher the discharge rate, the more the discharge rate, the more the discharge rate. The lower the discharge efficiency. The lower the temperature, the lower the discharge efficiency.

26. What is the output power of the battery?

The output power of the battery refers to the ability to output energy in the unit time. It is calculated based on discharge current i and discharge voltage, P = U*i, and the unit is Watt.

The smaller the internal resistance of the battery, the higher the output power, and the internal resistance of the battery should be less than the internal resistance of electrical appliances. Otherwise, the power consumption of the battery itself is greater than the power consumed by electrical appliances. This is not economical and may damage the battery.

27. What is the self -discharge of the secondary battery? What is the self -discharge rate of different types of batteries?

Self -discharge is also known as the ability to maintain load power. It refers to the ability to maintain the power stored in a certain environmental conditions when the road is opened. Generally speaking, self -discharge is mainly affected by the manufacturing process, materials, and storage conditions. Self -discharge is one of the main parameters to measure battery performance. Generally speaking, the lower the storage temperature of the battery, the lower the self -discharge rate, but it should also be noted that the temperature is too low or too high may cause battery damage and cannot be used.

After the battery is fully charged and opened for a period of time, a certain degree of self -launching is normal. The IEC standard stipulates that the temperature is 20 ° C ± 5 ° C after being fully charged, and the humidity is put on the road for 28 days under the condition of (65 ± 20)%, and the 0.2C discharge capacity reaches 60%of the initial capacity.

28. What is a 24 -hour self -discharge test?

The self -release test of the lithium battery is generally used for 24 -hour self -discharge to quickly test the ability to maintain its load, discharge the battery 0.2C to 3.0V, the constant current constant voltage 1C charging to 4.2V, the deadline: 10mA, shelving 15 15, 15 to hold 15 After a minute, measure the discharge capacity C1 with 1C to 3.0V, and then charge the battery constant flow constant voltage 1C to 4.2V. The deadline current: 10mA, the 1C capacity C2 after setting up for 24 hours, C2/C1*100%should be greater than that 99%.

29. What is the difference between the internal resistance of the charging state and the internal resistance of the discharge state?

The charging state resistance refers to the internal resistance when the battery is fully charged; the internal resistance of the discharge state refers to the internal resistance after the battery is fully discharged.

Generally speaking, the internal resistance of the discharge state is not stable, and it is too large. The internal resistance of the charging state is small, and the resistance value is relatively stable. During the use of the battery, only the internal resistance of the charging state has practical significance. In the later stage of the battery, due to the exhaustion of the electrolyte and the decrease in the internal chemical activity, the internal resistance of the battery will increase to varying degrees.

30. What is static resistance? What is a dynamic resistance?

The static internal resistance is the internal resistance of the battery during discharge, and the dynamic internal resistance is the internal resistance of the battery during charging.

31. Is it a standard over -charge test?

The IEC stipulates that the standard overcoming test of the nickel -metalized battery is: discharge the battery to 1.0V/support of 0.2C, and charge 0.1C for 48 hours. The time of 1.0V should be greater than 5 hours.

32. What is the IEC standard cycle life test?

IEC stipulates that the standard cycle life test of nickel -metal hydride battery is:

Put the battery after 0.2C to 1.0V/support

01) charge 0.1C for 16 hours, and then discharge 0.2C for 2 hours and 30 minutes (a cycle)

02) 0.25C charging 3 hours and 10 minutes, 2 hours and 20 minutes discharge at 0.25C (2-48 cycles)

03) 0.25C charging 3 hours 10 minutes, and placed from 0.25C to 1.0V (49th cycle)

04) 0.1c charging for 16 hours, shelving for 1 hour, and 0.2C discharged to 1.0V (50th cycle). After repeated 1-4 cycles of nickel-metal hydride batteries, the 0.2C discharge time should be greater than 3 hours; repeated 1-4 cycles for nickel-cadmium batteries, and its 0.2C discharge time should be greater than 3 hours.

33. What is the internal pressure of the battery?

Refers to the internal air pressure of the battery, which is caused by the gas generated by the sealing battery during the charging and discharge process. It is mainly affected by factors such as battery materials, manufacturing processes, and battery structures. The cause of it is mainly due to the gases generated by the internal water and organic solution of the battery gathered in the battery. Generally, the internal voltage of the battery is maintained at the normal level. Under the condition of overloading or being put, the internal pressure of the battery may increase:

For example, over -charging, orthodox: 4OH -4E → 2H2O + O2 ↑; ①

The oxygen generated by the hydrogen response from the negative electrode generates water 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O ②

If the speed of the reaction ② is lower than the speed of the reaction ①, the oxygen generated is too late to be consumed, which will cause the battery to increase.

34. What is the standard load and electricity maintenance test?

IEC stipulates that the standard load and electricity maintenance test of the nickel -metalized battery is:

After the battery is placed to 1.0V at 0.2C, it is charged for 16 hours at 0.1C, and at the condition of 20 ℃ ± 5 ℃, and the humidity is 65%± 20%. After 28 days of storage Nickel -hydride batteries should be greater than 3 hours.

The national standard stipulates that the standard load power maintenance of lithium batteries is: (IEC has no relevant standards) batteries are placed from 0.2C to 3.0/support, and then charged to 4.2V with 1C constant voltage. At ℃ ± 5 ℃, after 28 days of storage, then discharge 0.2C to 2.75V, calculate the discharge capacity, and then compared with the battery nominal capacity, it should not be less than 85%of the initial capacity.

35. What is a short -circuit experiment?

The full -length and negative short circuit is connected to the positive and negative electrode in the explosion -proof box in the explosion -proof box, and the battery should not explode or fire.

36. What is a high temperature and high humidity test?

Nickel -hydride battery high temperature and high humidity test is:

After the battery is fully charged, it is placed in a number of days under the conditioning temperature and humidity conditions. During the storage process, there is no leakage.

High temperature and high humidity test of lithium batteries are: (national standard)

Heat the battery 1C constant flow to 4.2V, the deadline of 10mA, and then put it in (40 ± 2) ° C. After the relative humidity is 90%-95%of the constant temperature constant humidity box, it is put on hold for 48h. Stay for 2h under the condition of ± 5) ℃. Observation of the appearance of the battery should be no abnormal. Then use 1C constant flow electricity to 2.75V, and then perform 1C charging and 1C discharge cycle under the condition of (20 ± 5) ° C until the discharge capacity is not discharged until the discharge capacity Not less than 85% of the initial capacity, but the number of cycles is not more than 3 times.

37. What is Wen Sheng Experiment?

After the battery is fully charged, put it in the oven. At a rate of 5 ° C/min starts to heat up from the room temperature. When the oven temperature reaches 130 ° C for 30 minutes, the battery should not explode or fire.

38. What is temperature circulation experiment?

The temperature cycle experiment contains 27 cycles, and each cycle consists of the following steps:

01) The battery is placed from normal temperature to 66 ± 3 ° C and 15 ± 5%conditions for 1 hour.

02) Place it at the condition that the temperature is at 33 ± 3 ° C and the humidity is 90 ± 5 ° C for 1 hour.

03) The condition is turned to -40 ± 3 ° C for 1 hour

04) The battery is put on hold 0.5 hours at 25 ° C

This 4 steps are completed. After this 27 cycle experiments, the battery should not be leaked, and alkali climbing, rust or other abnormal conditions occur.

39. What is a drop test?

After the battery or battery pack was fully charged, it fell from a 1m high to the ground to the concrete (or cement) to obtain a random direction.

40. What is vibration experiment?

Nickel -metalized battery vibration experimental method is:

After the battery discharged to 1.0V with 0.2C, it charged 0.1C for 16 hours.

Stimulation: 0.8mm

Make the battery vibrate between 10Hz-55Hz and increase or decrease at a vibration rate of 1Hz per minute.

The battery voltage changes should be between ± 0.02V and the internal resistance changes within ± 5MΩ. (Vibration time is 90min)

Lithium battery vibration experimental method is:

After the battery discharges 0.2C to 3.0V, the 1C charging constant current constant current is charged to 4.2V. The current current is 10mA.

Taking the vibration frequency from 10 Hz to 60 Hz to 10 Hz within 5 minutes, a cycle, the amplitude is 0.06 inches for vibration experiments. The battery vibrates in the three -axis direction, and each shaft is vibrated for half an hour.

The battery voltage changes should be between ± 0.02V and the internal resistance changes within ± 5MΩ.

41. What is an impact experiment?

After the battery is fully charged, a hard rod is placed on the battery, and a 20 -pound heavy object falls from a certain height to a hard rod. The battery should not explode and not fire.

42. What is penetrating experiment?

After the battery is fully charged, use a certain diameter nail to pass through the center of the battery, and leave the nails in the battery. The battery should not explode and fire.

43. What is a burning experiment?

Place the full -charged battery on a heating device with a special protective cover for burning, and wear a protective cover without fragmentation.

Frequently Ascended Battery Questions and Analysis

44. What certifications have the product passed?

Apply for related third -party certifications according to customer requirements.

45. What are the precautions during the battery?

01) Before use, please read the battery instructions carefully;

02) Electric and battery contacts should be cleaned. If necessary, wipe it with a wet cloth.

03) Do not mix the new and old batteries. The same model but different types of batteries cannot be mixed, so as not to reduce the effectiveness of use;

04) Can not regenerate disposable batteries by heating or charging;

05) Can't shorten the battery;

06) Do not disassemble and heat the battery, or throw the battery into the water;

07) The battery should be removed when the electrical appliance is not used for a long time, and the switch should be cut off after use;

08) Do not discard the waste batteries at will. Put as much as possible with other garbage as much as possible to avoid pollution;

09) Do not allow children to replace the battery when there is no adult monitoring. Small batteries should be placed where children cannot get;

10) The battery should be preserved at the cool, dry, and sunny shot.

46. What are the differences between the current common rechargeable batteries?

At present, a large number of nickel -cadmium, nickel -metal hydride, and lithium -ion rechargeable batteries are used in various portable electrical equipment (such as laptops, cameras, and mobile phones, etc.). Each charging battery has its own unique chemical properties. The main difference between nickel -cadmium and nickel -hydride batteries is that the energy density of nickel -metal hydride batteries is relatively high. Compared with the same type of battery, the capacity of nickel -hydride battery is twice the nickel -cadmium battery. This means that the use of nickel -metal hydride batteries can greatly extend the equipment time when using nickel -metal hydride batteries without electric equipment. Another advantage of nickel -metal hydride batteries is; A greatly reduces the existence of cadmium batteries: the problem of "memory effect", so that nickel -metal hydride batteries can be more convenient to use. Nickel -hydride batteries are more environmentally friendly than nickel -cadmium batteries because there is no toxic heavy metal element inside. Li-ION has also quickly become a standard power supply for portable devices. Li-ION can provide the same energy as nickel-metal hydride batteries, but it can reduce about 35%in terms of weight. This is It is crucial. Li-ION has no "memory effect" and the advantages of non-toxic substances is an important factor that makes it a standard power supply.

The discharge efficiency of nickel -metal hydride batteries will be significantly reduced at low temperature. Generally, charging efficiency will increase with the increase in temperature. It will also be greatly shortened.

47. What is the multiplier discharge of the battery? What is the hour rate of battery?

The multiplier discharge refers to the exposition of the multiplier relationship between the discharge current (A) and the rated capacity (a • h) during discharge. The hourly rate discharge refers to the number of hours required to complete the rated capacity at a certain output current.

48. Why do we need to keep the battery in winter when shooting in winter?

Because the battery in the digital camera is too low, the activity of the active substances is greatly reduced, so that the normal working current of the camera may not be provided. Therefore, it is necessary to shoot outdoor shooting outdoors at lower temperatures. Pay particular attention to the warmth of the camera or battery.

49. The working temperature range of lithium ion battery?

Charging -10-45 ° C discharge -30-55 ° C

50. Can batteries of different capacity be combined together?

If you use different capacity or old batteries together, there may be phenomena such as leakage, zero voltage, etc. This is because during the charging process, some batteries are overloaded during charging. The high battery is not charged, and the low capacity is overwhelmed. Such a malignant cycle, the battery is damaged and the liquid or low (zero) voltage is leaked.

51. What is the effect of external short circuits and the effect of battery performance?

The two ends of the outside of the battery will cause external short circuits on any conductor, different battery types, and short circuit may bring different degrees of serious consequences. Such as: the temperature of the electrolyte rises, the internal pressure is high. If the voltage value exceeds the battery block, the battery will leak liquid. This situation is severely damaged by the battery. If the safety valve fails, it will even cause explosion. So do not shorten the battery outside.

52. What are the main factor affecting the life of the battery?

01) Charging:

When selecting the charger, it is best to use a charger with the correct termination of the charging device (such as the anti-charging time device, the negative voltage difference (-DV) to cut off the charging and the anti-thermal sensing device), so as not to shorten the service life due to excessive charging. Generally speaking, slow charging and fast charging can extend the service life of the battery.

02) discharge:

a. The depth of discharge is the main factor affecting the battery life. The higher the depth of the discharge, the shorter the life of the battery. In other words, as long as the discharge depth is reduced, the service life of the battery can be greatly extended. Therefore, we should avoid putting the battery to a very low voltage.

b. When the battery discharge at high temperature, the battery life will be shortened.

c. If the designed electronic equipment cannot completely stop all currents, if the equipment is not used for a long time without removing the battery, the residual current will sometimes consume the battery too much, causing the battery to discharge.

d. When mixed with batteries with different electrical capacity, chemical structures or different charging levels, as well as new and old batteries, the battery can also be discharged too much, and it will even cause anti -polar charging.

03) Storage:

If the battery is stored at high temperatures for a long time, it will attenuate its electrode activity and shorten the service life.

53. Can it be saved in electrical appliances after the battery is used or for a long time?

If you use electrical appliances for a long time, it is best to take out the battery and put it in a low temperature and dry place. If not, even if the electrical appliance is turned off, the system will still have a low -current output, which will shorten this will shorten the battery, which will shorten the short -current, which will shorten the shortcut, which will shorten it. This will shorten it. The life of the battery.

54. What condition is better for the battery stored? Do I need to fully save the battery for a long time?

According to the IEC standard, the battery should be stored at the condition that the temperature is 20 ℃ ± 5 ℃ and the humidity is (65 ± 20)%. Generally speaking, the higher the storage temperature of the battery, the lower the surplus rate of the capacity. Even if the secondary battery loses the capacity after storage, it can be recovered as long as it is recharged several times.

Theoretically, there is always energy loss during battery storage. The inherent electrochemical structure of the battery itself determines that the battery capacity is inevitable to lose, mainly due to self -power distribution. The size of the self -discharge is related to the dissolving of the positive electrode in the electrolytes and the instability (easy to break down) its heating. The self -discharge of the rechargeable battery is far higher than the battery.

If you want to save the battery for a long time, try to put it in a dry and low temperature environment and let the battery remain in about 40% of the most ideal. Of course, it is best to take out the battery once a month, which can ensure the good storage status of the battery, and it will not cause the battery to be completely lost and damaged the battery.

55. What is a standard battery?

Internationally stipulated batteries that measure the standards as an potential (bit) measurement. It was invented in 1892 by American electrical engineer E. Weston, so it is also called Weston battery.

The positive electrode of the standard battery is mercury sulfate electrodes. The negative electrode is cadmium mercury qi metal (containing 10 % or 12.5 % cadmium). The electrolyte is an acidic saturated cadmium sulfate water solution. In fact, the saturated cadmium sulfate and sulfate sulfate water solution Essence

56. What are possible causes of zero voltage or low voltage in single batteries?

01) short -circuit or over -charging and anti -charging of the battery (forced to play);

02) The battery is continuously overcharged by a high -magnification and large current, which causes the battery pole core to swell, and the positive and negative electrodes are directly exposed to short circuit.

03) Short or micro -short circuits inside the battery, such as: improper placement of positive and negative chips, causing polar contact short circuits, or positive chip contacts.

57. What are the possible causes of zero or low voltage in the battery pack?

01) Whether a single battery zero voltage;

02) Short -circuit and disconnection of plugs, not connected to the plug;

03) Line and battery are welded and welded;

04) Error internal connection of the battery, leaks welding, virtual welding, welding, etc. between the connecting pieces and the battery;

05) The internal electronic component of the battery is incorrect and damaged.

58. What are the control methods to prevent the battery from charging?

In order to prevent the battery from charging, it is necessary to control the endpoint of charging. When the battery is full, there will be some special information to determine whether the charging reaches the end point. Generally, there are six methods to prevent the battery from being charged:

01) Peak voltage control: judge the end point of charging by detecting the peak voltage of the battery;

02) DT/DT control: judge the end of the charging by detecting the peak temperature change rate of the battery;

03) △ T control: When the battery is fully charged, the difference between temperature and ambient temperature will reach the maximum;

04)-△ V control: When the battery is fully charged reaches a peak voltage, the voltage will decrease to a certain value;

05) Time control: control the endpoint of charging by setting a certain charging time. Generally, the time required to charge 130%of the nominal capacity is set to control;

59. What are the possible reasons for the battery and battery packs to charge?

01) zero voltage battery battery or battery pack has zero voltage battery;

02) The battery pack connection error, internal electronic components, the protection circuit is abnormal;

03) Charging equipment failure, no output current;

04) External factors lead to too low charging efficiency (such as extremely low or high temperature).

60. What are the possible causes of battery and battery packs?

01) After the battery is stored and used, the life is attenuation;

02) Insufficient charging or not charging;

03) The environmental temperature is too low;

04) The discharge efficiency is low. For example, when the large current discharge, the general battery cannot keep up with the voltage due to the internal material diffusion speed that cannot keep up with the response speed.

61. What are the possible causes of battery and battery packs?

01) The battery is not fully charged. If the charging time is not enough, the charging efficiency is low, etc.;

02) The discharge current is too large, resulting in a reduction in discharge efficiency and shortening the discharge time;

03) The ambient temperature is too low when the battery discharge, and the discharge efficiency decreases;

62. What does it affect the performance of battery?

Excessive charging refers to the behavior that the battery is fully charged after a certain charging process, and then continues to charging. For the NI-MH battery, the over-charging has the following reactions:

Corporation: 4OH -4E → 2H2O + O2 ↑; ①

Negative: 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O ②

Because the negative pole capacity is higher than the positive pole capacity during design, the oxygen generated by the positive electrode compounds the hydrogen generated by the diaphragm paper with the negative electrode. Or if the charging time is too long, the oxygen generated is too late to be consumed, which may cause adverse phenomena such as increased internal pressure, battery deformation, leakage and other adverse phenomena. At the same time, its electrical properties will also be significantly reduced.

63. What does it affect the performance of battery?

After the battery is installed in the internal storage power, after the voltage reaches a certain value, it will cause discharge to continue discharge. Usually, the discharge interde-off voltage is determined according to the discharge current. 10C discharge is set to 0.8V/branch. The battery release may bring catastrophic consequences to the battery, especially the large current over or repeatedly put, which has a greater impact on the battery. Generally speaking Reverse can be damaged, even if charging can only be partially recovered, the capacity will be significantly attenuated.

64. What are the main reasons for the expansion of the rechargeable battery?

01) Poor battery protection circuit;

02) The battery does not protect the battery inflation;

03) Poor performance of the charger, and the charging current is too large, causing the battery to swell;

04) The battery is continuously charged with a high rate of large currents;

05) The battery is forced to play;

06) The design of the battery itself.

65. What is a battery explosion? How to prevent battery explosion?

The solid matter in any part of the battery was discharged instantly and was pushed to a distance of above 625px from the battery, which is called an explosion. The general methods of prevention are:

01) But not to charge, not short circuit;

02) Use better charging equipment for charging;

03) The exhaust holes of the battery must be kept smooth;

04) Pay attention to heat dissipation when the battery is used;

05) Different types and different new batteries are prohibited.

66. What are the types of battery protection components and their respective advantages and disadvantages?

Large current protection of thermal switch-PTC-battery pack
Overcurrent protector-PTC-battery pack over current protection
Fuse-sensor circuit current and temperature

67. What is a portable battery?

Portable, which means easy to carry and easy to use. Portable batteries are mainly providing electrical energy for laptops and ropeless equipment. The larger model (such as: 4 kg or more) is not a portable battery. Today's typical portable batteries are about hundreds of grams.

The family of portable batteries includes a battery and a rechargeable battery (secondary battery). The button battery belongs to the special group of them

68. What are the characteristics of charging portable batteries?

Each battery is an energy converter. Can directly convert the storage chemistry into electrical energy. For rechargeable batteries, this process can be described this: The power energy of the charging process is converted into chemical energy → chemical energy transformed into electrical energy → the electrical energy is converted into chemical energy during the charging process, and the secondary battery can circulate more than 1,000 times.

In different electrochemical types, there are charging portable battery, lead -acid type (2V/branch), nickel -cadmium type (1.2V/branch), nickel -metal hydride type (1.2V/branch), lithium -ion battery (3.6V/branch. ), The typical features of these batteries are relatively constant discharge voltage (there is a voltage platform at the time of discharge), and the voltage at the beginning of the discharge and the end of the end are quickly attenuated.

69. Can any charger be used for charging portable batteries?

No, because any charger only corresponds to a specific charging process, it can only correspond to a specific electrochemical process, such as lithium ion, lead acid, or NI-MH battery. They not only have different voltage characteristics, but also different charging modes. Only the specially developed fast charger can make the NI-MH battery the most suitable charging effect. Slow -speed charger can be used when urgently needed, but it takes more time. It should be noted that although some chargers have qualified labels, when using it as a charger used as a battery of different electrochemical systems The qualified label just indicates that this device is in line with European electrical chemical standards or other national standards. This label does not give any type of information about what type of battery it is suitable for. It will get satisfactory results, and there is danger. For other types of battery chargers, you should also pay attention to this.

70. Can it be used to charge 1.2V portable battery instead of 1.5V base manganese batteries?

The voltage range of the alkali manganese battery is between 1.5V and 0.9V during discharge, and the constant voltage voltage is 1.2V/branch when the rechargeable battery is discharged. The battery is feasible, as well as vice versa.

71. What are the advantages and disadvantages of recharging batteries?

The advantage of recharging batteries is that long service life is long. Even if the price is more expensive than a battery, from a long -term use point of view, it is very economical, and the load capacity of the rechargeable battery is higher than most of the battery. However, the discharge voltage of ordinary secondary battery is basically constant, and it is difficult to predict when the discharge is over, so it will cause certain inconvenience during use. However, lithium -ion batteries can provide a longer use time for camera equipment, high load force, high energy density, and the decline in discharge voltage weakened with the deepening of discharge.

The self -release rate of ordinary secondary batteries is high, so it is suitable for large current discharge, such as digital cameras, toys, electric tools, emergency lights, etc., not suitable for small current discharge for long -term discharge, such as remote control, music doorbell, etc. It is not suitable for long -time interruptions such as flashlights. At present, the ideal battery is a lithium battery, which has almost all the advantages of the battery. The self -discharge rate is extremely low. The only disadvantage is that it is very strict with the requirements for charging and discharge. This is a guarantee of life.

72. What is the advantage of nickel -metal hydride battery? What is the advantage of lithium ion battery?

The advantage of nickel -metal hydride battery is:

01) Low cost;

02) Good fast charge performance;

03) Long cycle life;

04) No memory effect;

05) No pollution, green battery;

06) Wide range of temperature use;

07) Good safety performance.

The advantage of lithium ion battery is:

01) High energy density;

02) High working voltage;

03) No memory effect;

04) Long cycle life;

05) No pollution;

06) Light weight;

07) Self -discharge is small.

73. What are the advantages of lithium iron phosphate batteries? What is the advantage of the battery?

The main application direction of lithium iron phosphate batteries is power batteries, and its advantages are mainly reflected in the following aspects:

01) Super long life;

02) Safe use;

03) Fast -current and discharge can be charged at a large current;

04) High temperature resistance;

05) Large capacity;

06) No memory effect;

07) Small volume and light weight;

08) Green and environmental protection.

74. What are the advantages of lithium polymer batteries? What is the advantage?

01) The problem of no battery leakage liquid is not contained inside the battery without liquid electrolyte, and the solid of glue is used;

02) It can be made into thin batteries: with a capacity of 3.7V, 40mAh, and its thickness can be as thin as 3.0mm;

03) The battery can be designed as a variety of shapes;

04) Battery can bend and deformed: High molecular batteries can be bent at about 900;

05) A single high voltage can be made: the battery of the liquid electrolyte can only be connected in series with several batteries,

06) Since there is no liquid itself, it can be made into a multi -layer combination in a single one to achieve high voltage;

07) The capacity will double than the lithium -ion battery of the same size.

75. What is the principle of charger? What are the main categories?

The charger is a static variable flow device that uses an electronic electronic semiconductor device to convert the voltage and frequency of AC electricity. There are many chargers, such as the test and monitoring of lead -acid battery chargers, valve control sealing lead -acid battery, nickel -cadmium battery charger, nickel -metal hydride battery charger, lithium ion battery charger, portable electronic equipment lithium -ion battery charger, Lithium -ion battery protection circuit multifunctional charger, electric vehicle battery charger, etc.

Battery type and application field

76. How to classify batteries

Chemical battery:

——Ar once-dry battery (Carbon-Zinc Dry Batteries), Alkaline-Manganese Batteries, Lithium Batteries, activated batteries, zinc-mercury batteries, cadmium-mercury batteries, and air batteries, and air batteries. Zinc-silver batteries and solid electrolyte batteries (silver-iodine batteries) and so on.

——Te secondary battery-Lead Batteries, Ni-CD Batteries (NI-CD Batteries), Ni-MH Batteries, LI-ION BATTERIES, sodium-sulfur batteries, etc. Essence

—— Other batteries -fuel cells, Air Batteries, THIN BATTERIES, Light Batteries, nano Batteries, etc.

Physical battery: —— solar cell (solar cell)

77. What battery will dominate the battery market?

As a multimedia device with images or sounds such as cameras, mobile phones, ropeless telephones, laptops, etc., it is increasingly important in household appliances. Compared with the first battery, a large number of batteries are also applied to these fields. The second rechargeable battery will develop in the direction of small size, light weight, high capacity, and intelligent.

78. What is a smart secondary battery?

There is a chip in a smart battery, which not only provides power supply for the device, but also controls its main functions. This model of batteries can also display residual capacity, the number of cycles, temperature, etc. , In the future, it will occupy the main position of the market -especially in portable cameras, rope -free, mobile phones and laptops.

79. What is a paper battery? . What is a smart secondary battery?

Paper battery is a new type of battery, which also includes electrodes, electrolytes and isolation membranes. Specifically, this new type of paper battery is composed of fibrin paper implanted with electrodes and electrolytes, where fibrin paper plays a role in isolation. The electrode is the metal lithium that adds a carbon nanotuba in the cellulose and the metal lithium covered with a thin film made of cellulose; the electrolyte is a lithium hexofluorophosphate solution. This battery can be folded, and the thickness is only equivalent to paper. Researchers believe that because this paper battery has many performance, it will become a new type of energy storage equipment.

80. What is an optical battery?

Optical battery is a semiconductor element that generates electromotive motivation under the light of light. There are many types of optical batteries, which are commonly used in selenium light batteries, silicon light batteries and sulfide, and sulfide battery. It is mainly used for instrument, automation remote test and remote control. Some optical batteries can directly turn solar energy into electrical energy. This optical battery is also called solar cells.

81. What is a solar cell? What are the advantages of solar cells?

Solar battery is a device that transforms light energy (mainly solar light) to electrical energy. According to the principle of the photocopy effect, the optical voltage is generated according to the two sides of the bodied electric field separated by the PN knit to the two sides where the optical carrier is separated, and the external circuit is connected to the external circuit to make the power output. The power of solar cells is related to the intensity of light. The stronger the light, the stronger the power output.

The solar system is easy to install, easy to expand, and easy to disassemble. At the same time, solar energy is also very economical, and there is no energy consumption in the operation process. In addition, the system is resistant to mechanical wear; a solar system requires reliable solar cells to facilitate acceptance and storage of solar energy. Generally solar batteries have the following advantages:

01) High -load power absorption ability;

02) Long life life;

03) Good charge performance;

04) No need to maintain.

82. What is fuel cell? How to classify? What?

A fuel cell is an electrochemical system that translates chemistry directly into electrical energy.

The most common classification method is according to the type of electrolyte. Based on this, fuel cells can be divided into alkaline fuel batteries, generally use potassium hydroxide as an electrolyte; phosphate fuel cells, based on concentrated phosphate; proton exchange membrane fuel cells,, linked membrane fuel cells, which are fuel cells. A total fluoride or partial fluoride sulfon-type proton exchange membrane is used as an electrolyte; melting carbonate fuel cells are electrolyte based on the melted lithium-potassium carbonate or lithium-sodium-sodium carbonate; solid oxide fuel cell, Solid oxides are oxygen -ions, such as the stable oxide membrane of oxidation and stable oxide as an electrolyte. Sometimes the battery is classified according to the battery temperature, divided into low temperature (working temperature is less than 100 ° C) fuel cells, including alkaline fuel cells and proton exchange membrane fuel cells; medium temperature fuel cell Bacon-type alkaline fuel cells and phosphate fuel cells; high-temperature fuel cells (working temperature at 600-1000 ° C), including melting carbonate fuel cells and solid oxide fuel batteries.

83. Why does the fuel cell have great development potential?

In the past one or two decades, the United States has paid special attention to the development of fuel cells, and Japan has vigorously developed technology development on the basis of introducing American technology. The reason why fuel cells have attracted some developed countries is mainly because it has the following advantages:

01) High efficiency. Because the chemical energy of fuel is directly converted into electrical energy, the conversion efficiency is not limited by thermodynamic Kano cycle without thermal energy conversion in the middle; because there is no mechanical conversion, it can be exempted from mechanical transmission loss. In addition, the conversion efficiency does not due to the size of power generation. The change, so the fuel cell has high conversion efficiency;

02) Low noise, low pollution. In the process of chemical energy converted into electrical energy, fuel cells do not have mechanical motion components, but there are some small motion components in the control system, so it is low noise. In addition, fuel cells are low -polluting energy. Take phosphate fuel cells as an example. The sulfur oxides and nitrogen discharged from the United States are lower than the standards of the United States.

03) Strong adaptability. Fuel batteries can use various hydrogen -containing fuels, such as methane, methanol, ethanol, ethanol, biogas, petroleum gas, natural gas and synthetic gas, etc. Oxidant is an inexhaustible and inexhaustible air. The fuel cell can be made into a standard component of a certain power (such as 40 kilowatts). It is assembled as different power and types according to the needs of the user. It is installed in the most convenient place for users. If you need it, you can also install it as a large power station and use it with the conventional power supply system, which will help adjust the power load;

04) The construction cycle is short and the maintenance is simple. After the formation of industrialized production, the fuel cells can be continuously produced in various standard components of power generation devices. It is easy to transport and can be assembled at the site of the power station. Some people estimate the maintenance of 40 kWh phosphate fuel cells, only 25%of the same power diesel generator.

Because fuel cells have so many advantages, the United States and Japan attach great importance to its development.

84. What is nano battery?

Nano is 10-9 meters, and nano batteries are made of nano-material (such as: nano MNO2, Limn2O4, Ni (OH) 2, etc.). Nano -material has a special micro -structure and physical chemical properties (such as quantum size effects, surface effects, and tunnel quantum effects, etc.). At present, the mature nano battery in China is nano -active carbon fiber battery. It is mainly used for electric vehicles, electric motorcycles and electric helpers. This type of battery can charging cycles 1,000 times and continuously used for about 10 years. It only takes about 20 minutes to charge, the flat road itinerary reaches 400km, and the weight is 128kg. It has surpassed the level of battery vehicles in the United States and Japan. The charging of nickel-metal hydride batteries they produce takes about 6-8 hours, and the flat road itinerary is 300km.

85. What is a plastic lithium ion battery?

The currently mentioned plastic lithium -ion battery refers to a polymer used as an electroconductor as an electrolyte. This polymer can be dry or glue.

86. What are the best devices to use rechargeable batteries on?

Rechargeable batteries are particularly suitable for electrical devices that require relatively high energy supply or devices that require high current discharge, such as portable single players, CD players, small radios, electronic game consoles, electric toys, household appliances, professional cameras, mobile phones, cordless phones, laptops, and other devices that require high energy. It is best not to use rechargeable batteries for devices that are not commonly used, as rechargeable batteries have high self discharge. However, if the device requires high current discharge, rechargeable batteries must be used. Generally, users should follow the instructions provided by the manufacturer to choose a suitable battery for the device.

87. What is the voltage and field of different types of batteries?

Battery model Voltage Use field
lithium battery 6V Camera and so on
Lithium -manganese button battery 3V Pocket calculator, watch, remote control equipment, etc.
Silver oxygen button battery 1.55V Watch, small clock, etc.
Alkaline manganese round battery 1.5V Portable video equipment, camera, game machine, etc.
Alkaline manganese button battery 1.5V Pocket calculator, electric equipment, etc.
Zinc carbon round battery 1.5V Alarm, flash, toy, etc.
Zinc air buttons battery 1.4V Hearing aid, etc.
Button Battery 1.35V Hearing aid, camera, etc.
Nickel-cadmium batteries 1.2V Electric tools, portable cameras, mobile phone, rope phone, electric toys, emergency lights, electric bicycles, etc.
NiMH batteries 1.2V  Mobile phone, rope phone, portable camera, notebook, emergency light, household appliances, etc.
Lithium Ion Battery 3.7V Mobile phone, laptop computer, etc.

88. What are the types of rechargeable batteries? Which devices are suitable for each?

Battery Type Characteristic Application equipment
NiMH batteries High -capacity, environmental protection (excluding mercury, lead, cadmium), overcharge protection Audio equipment, video recorder, mobile phone, rope phone, emergency light
Nickel-cadmium batteries High load electrical tools
Lithium Ion Battery High load capacity, high energy density Mobile phone, laptop computer, video recorder
Lead-acid batteries Cheap price, convenient processing, low life, large weight Ship, car, mine lamp


89. What are the types of batteries on emergency lights?

01) Seal nickel -hydride battery;

02) Adjustable valve lead -acid battery;

03) The corresponding safety and performance standards of other types of batteries can also be used if IEC 60598 (2000) (Emergency Lights) standard (emergency light part).

90. How long is the service life of the rechargeable battery used for ropeless phone calls?

Under normal use, the service life is 2-3 years or longer. When the following situation occurs, the battery needs to be replaced:

01) After charging, the call time is shorter than once;

02) The call signal is not clear enough, the acceptance effect is very vague, and the noise is greater;

03) The distance between the ropeless phone and the machine seat needs to be closer, that is, the scope of use of ropeless calls is getting narrower.

91. Which type of battery can be used for remote control devices?

The remote control device can only be used by ensuring the battery in its fixed position. Different types of zinc carbon batteries can be used for different remote control devices. They can be identified through IEC standards. The batteries that are usually used are large batteries of AAA, AA, and 9V. The use of alkaline batteries is also a better choice. This type of battery can provide twice the working hours of zinc carbon batteries. They can also identify through IEC standards (LR03, LR6, 6LR61). However, because the remote control device only requires a small current, zinc carbon batteries are economically affordable.

The charging secondary battery can also be used in principle, but it is really used on the remote control device. Due to the high self -discharge rate of secondary batteries, it needs to be charged repeatedly. Therefore, this type of battery is not very practical.

92. What are the types of battery products? Which applications are suitable for?

Battery and environment

93. What is the impact of batteries on the environment?

Almost all batteries do not contain mercury, but heavy metals are still necessary for mercury batteries, charging nickel -cadmium batteries, and lead -acid batteries. If it is not disposed of properly and a large number, these heavy metals will have a harmful impact on the environment. At present, there are already special agencies in the world to recover manganese oxide, nickel -cadmium, and lead -acid batteries. For example: non -profit institution RBRC company.

94. What does the environmental temperature affect the performance of battery?

Among all environmental factors, temperature has the greatest effect on the charging and discharge performance of the battery. The electrochemical reactions on the electrode/electrolyte interface are related to the ambient temperature. The electrode/electrolyte interface is considered the heart of the battery. If the temperature decreases, the reaction rate of the electrode also decreases. Assuming that the battery voltage is kept constant, the discharge current is reduced, and the power output of the battery will decrease. If the temperature rises, the battery output power will rise. Temperature also affects the transmission speed of the electrolyte. The temperature rises accelerated the transmission, the temperature decreases, and the power of the battery will also be affected. However, the temperature is too high and exceeds 45 ° C, which will destroy the chemical balance in the battery and lead to side effects.

95. What is a green environmental protection battery?

Green environmentally friendly battery refers to a high -performance, non -polluting battery that has been put into use or is developing or developed in recent years. At present, a large amount of metal hydrogenated nickel battery, lithium ion battery, and mercury -free zinc -manganese original batteries and rechargeable batteries that are being promoted, and lithium or lithium -ion plastic batteries and fuel cells that are developing and developed are all developed and developed. One category. In addition, solar batteries (also known as photovoltaic power generation) that have been widely used and used for photovoltaic conversion in solar energy can also be included in this category.

96. What are the "green batteries" currently in use and research?

New green environmental protection batteries refer to a type of high -performance, non -polluting battery that has been put into use or is developing in recent years. At present, a large number of lithium ion batteries, metal hydrogenated nickel batteries, and mercury -free zinc -manganese batteries that are being promoted, and lithium or lithium -ion plastic batteries, combustion batteries, and electrochemical energy storage supercapacitors that are developing and developed are new types. The category of green environmental protection batteries. In addition, solar batteries that have been widely used using solar energy for photoelectric conversion have been widely used.

97. Where is the harmfulness of waste batteries?

The waste batteries that are more harmful to human health and ecological environment are mainly included in the waste batteries that are included in the hazardous waste control list: mercury -containing batteries, mainly mercury oxide batteries; lead -acid batteries: cadmium -containing batteries, mainly nickel -cadmium batteries. Because the abandoned batteries are thrown randomly, these batteries will pollute the soil, waters, and people can harm people's health through edible vegetables, fish and other foods.

98. What is the way to pollute the environment in waste batteries?

In the process of using these batteries, the inside of the battery shell is sealed, and it does not affect the environment. However, after a long -term mechanical wear and corrosion, the internal heavy metals and acid -alkali are leaked. Entering the soil or water source will enter the human food chain through various ways. The whole process is briefly described as follows: soil or water source -microorganisms -animal -circulating dust -crop -food -human body -nerve -deposits and disease. Other water -based plant food digestive creatures can be enhanced by the biological enlargement of the food chain, and they are rich in tens of thousands of biology in higher levels, and then enter the body of the human body through food. Causes chronic poisoning.